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厦门湾中华白海豚:面临的威胁与保护对策
王先艳,钟铭鼎,吴福星,戴宇飞,林莉
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(自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005; 福建省海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
中华白海豚(Sousa chinensis)是国家一级重点保护水生哺乳动物,在我国主要分布于东南沿海的近岸及河口水域。厦门湾是中华白海豚重要栖息地之一,同时也是东南沿海经济较为发达的地区。自改革开放以来,厦门进行了高强度的海洋开发活动,对中华白海豚及其栖息地造成了较大影响。为了保护该物种及其栖息地,厦门市制定了一系列的保护措施,如建立自然保护区、跨区域协同管理、鱼类资源管护与增殖放流等,取得了较好成效。本研究总结了厦门湾中华白海豚所面临的主要威胁,以及为保护中华白海豚及其栖息地所采取的保护措施;分析了目前仍然存在的问题并提出改进建议,如保护区优化调整、加强执法监管、开展栖息地生态修复等,可为厦门湾及其他海域中华白海豚的保护与管理提供参考与借鉴。
关键词:  海洋生物学  中华白海豚  威胁  管理  保护措施  厦门湾
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2021.01.015
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(42076159);自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费资助项目(HE01 190505,TIO2015023)
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Xiamen Bay: threats and conservation
WANG Xian-yan,ZHONG Ming-ding,WU Fu-xing,DAI Yu-fei,LIN Li
(Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), which mainly inhabits the coastal and estuary waters of the southeastern coast of China, has been listed as the first grade protected animal in the list of endangered and protected species in China. Xiamen Bay is one of the most important habitats for humpback dolphins and it is also known as an intensively developed area in the southeastern coast of China. Since the reform and development, Xiamen has experienced intensive sea exploitation that disturbed seriously on habitats and activities of the humpback dolphin. In order to protect the dolphins, the municipal government has taken a series of conservation measures, such as establishing nature reserves, cross-regional cooperation, fishery resources management, proliferation and release, etc., and has gained better achievements. The present study summarized the main threats to humpback dolphins in Xiamen Bay and conservation measures that had been taken for the protection of their population and habitats. Furthermore, we analyzed current problems of conservation and proposed suggestions for improvements, such as optimization and adjustment of the nature reserves, regulation enforcement and supervision, habitat ecological restoration, etc. We hope that the suggestions can provide new insights for the protections and management of humpback dolphins in Xiamen Bay and in other waters.
Key words:  marine biology  Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin  threat  management  conservation  Xiamen Bay

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